Q1 What do you mean by natural vegetation ?
A1 Plant community which has grown naturally without any human aid or support is known as natural vegetation. It is known as virgin vegetation. eg. forest
In India, there are about 47000 plant species and 89000 animal species. Cultivated fruits and crops are not natural vegetation.
Q2 Distinguish between Flora and Fauna
A2 Flora refers to plant community
Fauna refers to animal community
Q3 What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animal in India ?
A3 The factors are :-
Q4 Define ecosystem.
A4 It is a system which comprises physical environment and all the living organism. Plants, animals and human beings are a part of the ecosystem.
Q5 State any 5 advantages of forest.
A5 1) Enchancing the quality of the environment
2) It modifies the local climate
3) It controls soil erosion
4) It supports a variety of industry
5) It brings rainfall
6) It provides livehood for many communities
7) It provide shelter to the wildlife.
Q6 Name 2 animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.
A6 Tropical Rain Forest – Elephant, Lemur
Tropical Deciduous Forest – Lion, Tiger
Montane Forest – Red panda, Yak
O7 Define biome
A7 A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called biome.
Q8 Name different types of vegetations found in India
A8 1) Tropical Evergreen Forests
2) Tropical Deciduous Forests
3) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
4) Montane Forests
5) Mangrove Forests
I Tropical Rain Forests
1) It is also known as Tropical Evergreen Forest
2) These forests appears green throughout the year
3) These forests are found in areas having heavy rainfall i.e. more than 200 cm.
4) These forests are found in Assam, Tamil Nadu, Lakshadweep
5) There is no definite time to shed their leaves
6) The major trees are ebony, rosewood, mahogany
7) The major animals are elephants, lemur and deer
II Tropical Deciduous Forests
1) It is known as monsoon forests.
2) These forests are found in areas having rainfall between 200 – 70 cm
3) Trees shed their leaves in dry summer.
4) Based on the availibility of rainfall deciduous forests are classified into dry and moist deciduous forests
5) Moist deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100 – 200 cm
6) Moist deciduous forests are found in the foothills of Himalayas, Chhattisgarh, West Orissa, Jharkhand.
7) Dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 70-100 cm and are generally found in Peninsular Plateau, plains of Bihar and U.P.
8) Major trees are teak, sal, sandalwood
9) Major animals are lion, tiger, deer
III The Thorn Forests and Scrubs
1) These forests are found i8n reas having rainfall below 70 cm
2) Natural Vegetation consist of thorny trees and bushes.
3) These forests are found in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh etc.
4) The major trees are palms, cacti, acacias
5) Majo animals are camels, fox, rabbits
IV Montane Forests
1) They are found in mountainous areas
2) In these areas, decrease in temperature with increasing altitude lead to corresponding change in natural vegeation.
3) The wet temperate type of forests are found between height of 1000 and 2000 metres. (oaks and chestnuts)
4) Between 1500 and 3000 metres the temperate forests contains trees like pine, silver fir, cedar
5) More than 3600 metres above, temperate forests give way for Alpine Vegetation.
6) Major animals are yak, red panda, wild sheep
V Mangrove forests
1) These forests are known as tidal forests and are found in areas of coasts influenced by tides.
2) The deltas of Ganga, The Mahanadi, The Krishna, The Godavari and Kaveri are covered by such vegetations.
3) Major trees are palm, coconut, agar
4) Major animals are Royal Bengal Tiger, turtles, snakes